Vasculogenesis Split
48 hour time lapse video of vascular network formation
Vasculogenesis Gradient

A 3D projected confocal image of a HUVEC microvascular network in an idenTx  chip. Stained with Hoechst for cell nuclei, and with Alexa-fluo-488 for VE-cadherin.

Epifluorescence image of a HUVEC microvascular network, captured with Etaluma LS720. Blind deconvolution on z-stack of 43 images using Microvolution
Vasculogenesis Particle Flow
Particles flowing into a perfusable microvascular network


The idenTx chip design is suitable for vasculogenesis assays; however, the detailed protocols for the AIM chips are currently being developed. Please refer to (9) in the publication list below for the protocol to conduct this assay in AIM chips or (3) and (4) papers that used PDMS versions of the chip to conduct this assay.

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Users can submit their protocols to be referenced in this section and given due credit.


  1. Control of Perfusable Microvascular Network Morphology Using a Multiculture Microfluidic System. Whisler JA, Chen MB, Kamm RD. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, 2014. 20 (7):543-552
  2. In Vitro Microvessel Growth and Remodeling within a Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Environment. Park Y, Tu T-Y, Lim S, Clement IM, Yang S, Kamm R. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 2014. 7 (1):15-25
  3. Generation of 3D functional microvascular networks with human mesenchymal stem cells in microfluidic systems. Jeon JS, Bersini S, Whisler JA, Chen MB, Dubini G, Charest JL, . . . Kamm RD. Integr. Biol., 2014. 6 (5):555-563
  4. Human Vascular Tissue Models Formed from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Endothelial Cells. Belair DG, Whisler JA, Valdez J, Velazquez J, Molenda JA, Vickerman V, . . . Murphy WL. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, 2015. 11 (3):511-525
  5. Elucidation of the Roles of Tumor Integrin β1 in the Extravasation Stage of the Metastasis Cascade. Chen MB, Lamar JM, Li R, Hynes RO, Kamm RD. Cancer Res., 2016. 76 (9):2513-2524
  6. On-chip human microvasculature assay for visualization and quantitation of tumor cell extravasation dynamics. Chen MB, Whisler JA, Fröse J, Yu C, Shin YJ and Kamm RD. Nat Protoc. 2017 May; 12(5): 865–880.
  7. *Functional human 3D microvascular networks on a chip to study the procoagulant effects of ambient fine particulate matter. Li Y, Pi QM, Wang PC, Liu LJ, Han ZG, Shao Y, Zhai Y, Zuo ZY, Gong ZY, Yang X, Yang W. RSC Adv., 2017, 7, 56108–56116
  8. *Senescent Cells with Augmented Cytokine Production for Microvascular Bioengineering and Tissue Repairs. Xiao, Yang & Liu, Chang & Chen, Zhuo & R. Blatchley, Michael & Kim, Dongjoo & Zhou, Jing & Xu, Ming & Gerecht, Sharon & Fan, Rong. (2019).  Advanced Biosystems. 1900089. doi: 10.1002/adbi.201900089.
  9. Ex vivo Dynamics of Human Glioblastoma Cells in a Microvasculature-on-a-Chip System Correlates with Tumor Heterogeneity and Subtypes. Xiao Y, Kim D, Dura B, Zhang K, Han E, Ip J, Chen AT, Zhou J and Fan R. Adv. Sci. 2019, 6, 1801531. DOI: 10.1002/advs.201801531

Users can submit their publications to be referenced in this section.