Cancer cell extravasation is the process where cancer cells in blood circulation bind to adjacent endothelia and transmigrate through the endothelium into the secondary site. This complex process can be emulated in vitro by using AIM 3D Cell Culture Chips. After establishing an endothelial monolayer in the media channel or a microvasculature network in the 3D hydrogel, cancer cells flowed into the apical side of the endothelium can extravasate into the basal side. The AIM chips provide a more physiologically relevant microenvironment and offer greater control over the biochemical and biophysical factors that are critical in the events of extravasation.

Metastasis Assays


This protocol is based on work by Jeon, J.S., et al., In Vitro Model of Tumor Cell Extravasation. PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(2). We thank Dr. J.S. Jeon for his contribution to the preparation of this document.

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  1. In Vitro Model of Tumor Cell Extravasation. Jeon JS, Zervantonakis IK, Chung S, Kamm RD, Charest JL. PLoS ONE, 2013. 8 (2):e56910
  2. Mechanisms of tumor cell extravasation in an in vitro microvascular network platform. Chen MB, Whisler JA, Jeon JS, Kamm RD. Integr. Biol., 2013. 5 (10):1262-1271
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  5. Neutrophils suppress intraluminal NK-mediated tumor cell clearance and enhance extravasation of disseminated carcinoma cells. Spiegel A, Brooks MW, Houshyar S, Reinhardt F, Ardolino M, Fessler E, . . . Weinberg RA. Cancer Discov., 2016. 6 (6):630-649
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  7. On-chip human microvasculature assay for visualization and quantitation of tumor cell extravasation dynamics. Chen MB, Whisler JA, Fröse J, Yu C, Shin YJ and Kamm RD. Nat Protoc. 2017 May; 12(5): 865–880.

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